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科学家发现了一种袭击大脑引起进行性早老性痴呆症的新蛋白质。这种新蛋白帮助制备构成淀粉样斑块的物质之一。研究者们说对该蛋白的鉴定为阻止该疾病提供了一个新的药物作用靶。
在美国大约有400万人口受到老年痴呆症的困扰,这种疾病使得他们失去判断能力,健忘并且逐渐失去自我料理能力。这种神经损伤似乎是由于大脑中名为淀粉样斑块的沉积引起的。这些斑块中的一个主要成分是一种名为β-淀粉样蛋白的肽,这种肽是由一种名为APP的蛋白被酶切产生的。一些剪出β-淀粉样蛋白的细胞剪刀是一组名为早老分子(presenilins)的酶(见1999年10月22日的《Science》第650页),但是科学家们知道另外存在因子帮助早老分子。
为了找出这些“帮凶”,由多伦多大学的神经生物学家Gang Yu领导的一个研究组研究了与早老分子一起分离出的那些蛋白。他们从老年痴呆样细胞中分离出早老分子-1并发现了一种新蛋白——他们命名为nicastrin。这种新蛋白对于剪切蛋白的酶似乎非常必要:当Yu和他的研究组抓住nicastrin的同时,他们也抓住了APP。该蛋白制造斑块的更直接的证据是如果细胞含有特定的突变形式的nicastrin,它们会产生更多的β-淀粉样蛋白。研究者在9月7日出版的《Nature》上报道了该结果。他们提出nicastrin和早老分子-1(presenilin-1)是许多蛋白协同制造β-淀粉样蛋白的一个大的复合物中的成员,该复合物被称为secretosome。
芝加哥大学的分子神经生物学家Sangram Sisodia说,Nicastrin是“一个重要的谜”。他说,尽管很明显nicastrin是制造β-淀粉样蛋白肽的“机器”的“部件”,但它的作用仍不清楚。也许它自身剪切APP蛋白,或者帮助presenilin或其它蛋白完成这一任务。Sisodia说,了解这些细节将指导可能减慢老年痴呆症进程的药物设计。 jiyin.gif

圆形淀粉样斑块可能在名为nicastrin的蛋白的帮助下形成

共 2 个关于科学家发现引起老年痴呆的新蛋白的回复 最后回复于 2017-1-15 17:28

发表于 2017-1-15 15:46:32 | 显示全部楼层

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发表于 2017-1-15 17:28:31 | 显示全部楼层

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